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Préparation de haut niveau pour épreuve de 500 km


Le grand fond, étude Russe (2011) : http://lib.sportedu.ru/Press/TPPEVS/2011N1/p26-29.htm. Cf : Théorie et pratique du sport de haut niveau, in : http://lib.sportedu.ru/.

Auteurs : Eugene Kalinin, Sergey Dvoretsky, Viktor Seluyanov


Il est admis qu’un travail au seuil aérobie améliore les capacité d’effort aérobie. Seul ce mécanisme serait utile pour de très longues distances. Mais les fibres musculaires une fois saturées de mitochondries, il n’y a plus de progrès possible. La solution est d’augmenter la masse des fibres. Ce qui est démontré par cette étude où sont appliqués des exercices de renforcement plyométriques [statodinamicheskikh]. Pour les marcheurs, cela réside dans la puissance locale des fléchisseurs et extenseurs des pieds et des genoux.

Abréviations :

Seuil aérobie.
Seuil anaérobie.
Jour Programme aérobie standard Programme amélioré
1 20 km SAe Technique 30 mn
30 x 150 m (vitesse SAn + 15-20 %)
40 mn renforcement
2 Fartlek 10 x (1 km SAe + 1 km SAn) Technique 25 mn
10 km SAe Séries sur 80 m
3 20 km SAe Fartlek 6 x (2 km SAn + 1 km SAe)
2 h renforcement
4 Repos Repos
5 10 x 1 km (SAe/SAn) pause 100 m 1 h 1/2 sur home-trainer (SAe/SAn)
15 km SAe, 4 x 200 m Sprint : 40 x 60 m, vitesse SAn + 30%
6 30 km SAe Fartlek 5 x (1 km SAe + 1 km SAn)
Etirements 50 mn
7 Football 40 mn 25 km (90% vitesse SAn)

Le premier schéma (totalisant 150 km de marche par semaine) ne produisit pas d’amélioration. Le marcheur concerné abandonna dans Paris-Colmar au 150e km sur blessure.

Le second programme (100 km hebdomadaire) donna une amélioration (voir les tests physiologiques dans le document original). Celui qui en beneficiait termina vainqueur de Paris-Colmar.

Traduction sommaire

Utilisation de Yahoo Babelfish.


    KALININ Eugene
    Russian State University of Physical Culture, Sport, Youth and Tourism (GTSOLIFK), Moscow
    Ph.D., Associate Research Fellow Institute of Sport
    E-mail: emkalinin@gmail.com

    DVORETSKY Sergey
    Kuzbass State Technical University
    Senior Lecturer, Department of Physical Education, Master of Sport of Race Walking

    SELUYANOV Viktor
    Russian State University of Physical Culture, Sport, Youth and Tourism (GTSOLIFK), Moscow
    Ph.D., Professor. Honored Worker of Russia FC

    Keywords: physical training planning, extra-long walk.

    Summary. The author considers the problem of planning training loads for high class 
    athlete in international competitions in the very long sport walk - 500km.

Introduction. Training athletes in the cyclic forms of sport, soldiers to the foot 
passages, walkers for the extreme competitions on 500 km is built on the basis of 
hypothesis about the influence of function on the structure of organs. It is assumed that 
the fulfillment of work at the level of aerobic threshold ([AeP]) will contribute to an 
increase in the aerobic possibilities of athlete. Only this mechanism is necessary for the 
walker to the very long distances, since it is well known that the competing activity in 
stayers is carried out in the truly steady state, without which acidification of the 
muscles and blood

However, aerobic processes continue in the oxidizing muscular fibers ([OMV]), and with 
the training in the course of the month they are completely saturated by mitochondria 
and further increase In [aeP] and anaerobic threshold ([AnP]) ceases But how to increase 
oxygen intake at the level Of [aeP] and [AnP]? The solution is obvious - it is necessary 
to increase mass [OMV], then together with an increase in the myofibrils grows the mass 
of mitochondria. Consequently, the hypothesis of pedagogical experiment will be assumption 
about the influence of power preparation on the endurance of walker (indices of oxygen 
intake at the level Of [aeP] and [AnP]). In the works [V].[N]. [Seluyanova] [5] was 
shown that the application of [statodinamicheskikh] exercises conducts to hypertrophy 
and increase in the force [OMV], therefore, at the basis of training walker it lies the 
power local training to the muscles - flexors and the extensors of foot, flexors and 
extensors of knee joint. In proportion to hypertrophy [OMV] and usual training of walker 
must occur an increase in the aerobic possibilities of athlete.

Thus, by the purpose of a study is the comparison of the programs of planning training 
occupations according to the usual diagram (control) and the start in the training 
process of the local power exercises in the [statodinamicheskom] regime employing the 
procedure [V].[N]. Of [seluyanova] [5] and of interval high-speed- power trainings [5].

Methods of study. In the experiment participated the athlete, the master of sport on 
sport walking to the very long distances (mass of body 69 kgf, an increase in 178 cm), 
with the  period of occupations as the selected form of the sport of 25 years. 

For determining the physical preparedness was conducted stepped test on the bicycle 
ergometer [MONARK] - 828E. Load was assigned from 5[N] and adhered on 5 N every 2 min. 
the rate of pedalling - 75 r/min test was carried out to the failure with the registration 
[CHSS], the intake of oxygen, isolation of carbon dioxide, pulmonary ventilation with 
the aid of the gas analyzer COSMED K4.

The classification of training loads was carried out taking into account the lasting 
adaptive processes [of 3]. The intensity of exercise was considered, and it means, the 
probability of recruiting [OMV] and glycolytic muscular fibers ([GMV]), the duration of 
the operation of these muscular fibers (mV) was multiplied by the expert estimation of 
the effectiveness of this exercise, by hyperplasia of myofibrils and mitochondria (expert 
estimation it can vary in the limits from minus of one to plus of one). Multiplication 
of the operating time on the expert estimation of the usefulness of exercise gives the 
estimation of the good time of athlete during the trainings.

Results of a study. Planning training loads to the experiment was carried out along the 
conventional system - fulfillment of the large volume of walking of predominantly aerobic 

Example of training micro-cycle in the control. Training began with limbering-up 3 km 
and concluded with hitch 2 km (speed Of [aeP])

the 1st day. Walking 20 km (speed Of [aeP]); I YELL 20 min.
the 2nd day. Morning. [Fartlek] (1 km + of 1 km) of *10 of series (speed Of [aeP]/[AnP]) 
             Evening. Walking with the start of leaps to the stops (speed Of [aeP]) 
                      - 10 km 
the 3rd day. Morning. Walking 20 km (speed Of [aeP])
the 4th day - leisure
the 5th day. Morning. [Fartlek] (1 km + of 100 m) of *10 of series (speed Of [aeP]/[AnP]). 
             Evening is walking 15 km (speed Of [aeP]); the leaps of 4*200 m
the 6th day. Walking 30 km (speed Of [aeP])
the 7th day. Football 40 min.

The total volume of loads was 150 km in the week.

Table 1 presents the estimation of the effectiveness of the executed training loads. 
It is evident with the data analysis that the useful work for hyperplasia of myofibrils 
[OMV] is absent, for hyperplasia of the myofibrils [GMV] only of 3 min, for the 
mitochondria [GMV] of 11 min, for [dilyatatsii] of myocardium 515 min (see table 1). 

Micro-cycle of training walker in the preparatory period (experimental version)
(table 1)

Comparative analysis of the level of the physical preparedness of the athlete before 
and after of the execution of training program in the control
(table 2)

Comparative analysis of the level of the physical preparedness of the athlete before 
and after of the execution of training program in the experiment
(table 3)

It is evident from table 3 that the indices ([AeP], [AnP]), which reflect the level 
of special endurance, did not change. Consequently, athlete ran the ineffective 
program of preparation. 

The practical significance of the obtained results was confirmed in walking to 
the very long distance (500 km Paris- Kolmar), as a result athlete was taken by 
doctor because of the injury of talocrural joint after 150 km.

The pedagogical experiment, directed toward the correction of the plan of 
preparation for sport walking for the very long distance, was carried out 
for the solution of this problem. The basic task of the micro-cycle of preparation 
in the experiment was an increase in the force [OMV] and the aerobic possibilities 
of muscles (power Of [aeP] and [AnP]), since cardiovascular system was not the 
limiting component in the level of preparedness.

Basic accent in the training loads was made on the fulfillment of the exercises 
of local- power and high-speed- power directivity [2].

Micro-cycle of physical training in the experiment. Training began from the 
limbering-up to 3 km (speed Of [aeP]) and concluded with hitch 2 km (speed Of 
[aeP]) and with exercises to [stretching]. 

the 1st day. Morning. Exercises to the technology 30 min. 
             evening. Interval sprint of 150[m] X of 30 times (speed higher than 
                      [AnP] by 15-20%). Power [statodinamicheskaya] training 
                      30-40 min. 
the 2nd day. Morning. Exercises to the technology 25 min. 
             evening. Leaps on the snow 150 m of 5*80 of leaps.
the 3rd day. Morning. [Fartlek] (2 km + of 1 km) *6 of series (speed Of 
             Evening. Power [statodinamicheskaya] training 2 h.
the 4th day - leisure.
the 5th day. Morning. [Velotrenirovka] (speed Of [aeP]/[AnP]) of 1,5 h. 
             evening. Interval sprint of 60[m] of 40 times (speed higher than 
                      [AnP] by 30%).
the 6th day. Morning. [Fartlek] (1 km + of 1 km) *5 of series (speed Of 
             Evening. [Stretching] 50 min.
7 day. Tempo work 25 km (speed 90% [AnP]).

The total volume of loads was 100 km in the week.
It is evident from table 2 that for hyperplasia of myofibrils [OMV] 
the athlete carried out 140 min useful work, for hyperplasia of myofibrils [GMV] 
- 132 min, for hyperplasia of mitochondria [GMV] - 392 min, for 
[dilyatatsii] of myocardium - 570 min.

After the completion of pedagogical experiment was carried out stage testing 
(table 4). 

It is evident from table 4 that after the fulfillment of the experimental 
version of training athlete an increase in oxygen intake at the level 
occurred: [AeP] 2,3 times, [AnP] 1,5 times, [MPK] to 11%. 

The application of an innovation procedure of planning training loads 
with the application of biologically expedient methods of the checking 
of physical state made it possible to develop the individualized program 
of the physical training of athlete for walking to the very long distance 
- 500 km, which as a result led to an increase in the level of the aerobic 
preparedness of muscles. Athlete showed high world reaching during entire 
history of conducting competitions in walking to the very long distance - 
(500 km Paris- Kolmar) and was engaged the 1st place with the result 
of 52 h of 43 min, after outdistancing a participant in that occupied 
the 2nd place, on 40 min.

Cre : 26 oct 2011 - Maj : 28 oct 2011

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